Risk Management

Some tools of the Lean Six Sigma – Analyze, Improve, and Control

Lean Six Sigma is a system that uses the right tools to achieve cost, speed, and quality leaps. We will conclude our discussion by reviewing tools from the Analyze, Improve, and Control phases DMAIC.

The Analyse Phase

Purpose of Analysis:

This phase is crucial in Lean Six Sigma implementation. It identifies and verifies relationships between causes, and their effects. It assists in identifying factors that impact key process outputs and inputs. The analyse phase attempts to identify patterns in data from the measure phase to help make sense.

Tools to Analyse

Scatter plots

A graph is created by plotting two variables against each other. The resulting image shows how closely the variables are related.

Analyse Regression:

This is a mathematical equivalent to the scatter plot. This equation expresses the dependence of one variable on another. The equation can then used to predict the value of the dependent variable for the given values of independent variables.

Fish bone diagram:

An arrow is drawn, with the cause of the effect shown to the right at its end. On the branches that branch from the main line, you will see probable causes. The corresponding branch is shown with detailed explanations for each category.

Analyse of Time Traps and Identification of Capacity Constraints:
Time traps are process activities that add delays to the process. They can be caused by capacity constraints, operational inefficiencies, or other factors. It doesn’t matter what the cause of the delay, the end result is long lead times. A capacity constraint refers to a sub-process/activity whose output per unit of time is lower than the preceding and/or following sub-process/activity.

Analysis that is not value-added

Every process activity on the as is value streammap is evaluated in order to determine their contribution to customer needs. Those activities that aren’t valuable to customers and not needed for other business reasons (e.g. All regulatory requirements are removed.

The Improvement Phase

The purpose of improving:

The previous phases identified and measured defects and non-value added activities, as well as costs, and then their causes were determined and analysed. The goal of the improve phase was to eliminate both defects and other wastes.

Tools to Improve

To be Process Maps

Reduced setup

We can see whether long setup times were the main cause of the delay by analysing the capacity constraint and the time trap analysis in the Analyse phase. The following steps will be applied in this case.

* Document and classify setup procedures

* Improve organisation-Study work area layout and analyse required movements. If necessary, use 5S to eliminate inefficiencies Think about improvement opportunities for the setup steps.

* Where possible convert internal (setup activities that are done with the machine down) to external (setup activities that do not affect the running of the machine) procedures. This is done in transactional situations by converting serial procedures into parallel.

* Improve the remaining internal setup procedures.

* Eliminate need for adjustments.

This tool is efficient, and creates a tidy and well-organized work area with everything in its proper place. These are the steps of the method:

* Sort

* Straighten

* Shine

* Standardise

* Sustain

By reducing unnecessary motion and transport, 5S reduces inefficiencies due to lack of organisation.

Total Productive Maintenance

Total productive maintenance is recommended for areas where downtime can be a major factor in low process cycle efficiency. It aims to reduce downtime.

Make a mistake proofing:

Properly designing processes and equipment will eliminate the chance of errors. For example, online forms can’t be submitted if there are insufficient or incorrect data. Parts that cannot be assembled in a single way are another example.

Design Of Experiments:

This is the statistical design for experiments. It allows you to calculate the impact of multiple variables on a variable of interest. This tool can also account for interactions between variables.

Hypothesis Testing

This is a statistical tool to verify the validity and reliability of assumptions. The assumptions could be related to the effect of causes on effects. If performance is believed to be operator dependent, tests could be conducted to determine if there are statistically significant differences between operators.

Solution Selection Matrix

There will likely be multiple solutions to the problem under consideration. They are compared using a number of weighted criteria in order to identify the most suitable.

Project Management:

The actual implementation of the agreed solutions will take the form of an ongoing project. This will require the use of standard project management tools for communication, planning, monitoring, and risk assessment.

The Control Phase

The Purpose Of Control

The control phase serves to ensure that the improvements made in the improve phase are embedded within the organisation.

Control Tools:

Standard Operating Procedures

New operating procedures will be included in the process design. These operating practices must be codified in an operational manual, which can be referenced by operators. A standard operating guide helps to avoid inefficiency and prevents slippage.

Control of statistical processes:

Control charts must be made to reflect the improvements in the process and can be used to monitor its performance over time.

Visual Management

Visual management can be described as the ability to walk through a work area and return with 90% of the information. This can be achieved by 5S organization, the placement of illustrations of process steps close to the process, SIPOC maps and value stream maps as well as shadow boards.


These tools are just a sample of many available. A few tools will be most commonly used for any project.


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