Tech

History of Educational Technology

It is not possible to determine who coined the term educational technology. Different educators, scientists, and philosophers have formulated different definitions for Educational Technology. Educational technology is multifaceted and integrates people, process, ideas and devices. It allows technology from different fields to be borrowed in order to implement, evaluate, and manage solutions to all aspects of learning.

Education technology has, in general, passed through There are five stages.

The use of aids such as charts, diagrams, symbols, models and specimens is the first stage in educational technology. Educational technology is a synonym for audio-visual aids.

The second stage in educational technology is the “electronic revolution”, which saw the creation and establishment of advanced hardware and software. The educational scene has been transformed by the introduction of audio-visual aids such as tape-recorder and radio, tape-recorder, magic lanterns, television, radio, and projector. These sophisticated tools and equipments were used to effectively present instructional materials. This is the educational technology concept.

The third stage in the evolution of educational technology is connected with the development and use of mass media. This led to a ‘communication revolution” for instructional purposes. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI), which has been used in education since the 1950s, also gained popularity during this time.

The fourth stage in educational technology can be identified by the individualized process of instruction. Programmable learning and programed instruction gave rise to a new dimension in educational technology. The self-instructional materials, teaching machines and self-learning system emerged.

The new concept of educational technology has been influenced by system engineering. This refers to the system approach or concept that focuses on system engineering. It is also known as language laboratories, teaching machines and multimedia technologies. Educational technology, according to this definition, is a method of planning, carrying out, and evaluating the entire process of teaching and learning based on specific objectives.

The Iron Age, the Bronze Age and the Stone Ages were all periods of educational technology.
Despite the uncertainty surrounding the origin of the term educational technology can be traced back at the time of the three age system periodization human prehistory, which consists of the Stone Age and the Bronze Ages, as well as the Iron Age.

In the Stone Age, simple technological advances were crucial. They included the creation of tools and utensils, fire-ignition by rubbing stones, and clothing. A portion of Stone Age people created ocean-worthy canoe ships that could be used to cross the Ocean. They also learned how to navigate in the water and what the weather is like. The later Stone Age (Neolithic) period saw polished stone tools made from various hard rocks. These tools were made by digging underground tunnels. These tunnels can be considered to have been the first steps towards mining technology. These axes were so efficient that, even after the invention of iron and bronze it was still used for clearing trees and establishing crop farming.

Stone Age cultures didn’t leave any written records but archaeological evidences supported their transition from nomadic lifestyle to agricultural settlement. Prehistoric tools found in museums and cave paintings such as Altamira Cave, Spain, and other art from prehistory, including the Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess, Laussel, France, etc. These are just some of the evidences supporting their cultures.

The Neolithic Revolution of Stone Age led to the appearance of Bronze Age, which saw the development of agriculture, animal husbandry, and permanent settlements. Bronze Age people also developed metal melting, with copper and then bronze, an alloy made of tin, copper and zinc, as their preferred materials.

Iron utensils, which were more durable than their bronze counterparts, were replaced by Iron Age people who learned how to smelt iron. Iron Age was the last period in many Eurasian cultures before written scripts were invented.

Education technology in the age of Ancient Civilizations
Paul Saettler (2004) says that educational technology dates back to when ancient cultures created pictographs and sign writing to transmit and record information. Every stage of human civilization has an instructional technique, or set of procedures, that was intended to implement a specific culture. This support was also provided by a number of investigations and evidences. The technology of instruction that reflects specific social and individual behaviours to create an educated society became more complex as the culture advanced. Each significant shift in educational goals and objectives over the centuries has led to different technologies of instruction.

The rise of ancient civilisations saw the greatest advancements in engineering and technology. These advancements influenced and educated many other societies to adopt new ways for living and governance.

Indus Valley Civilization was an early Bronze Age civilisation that was located in the Indian Subcontinent’s northwest region. The Indus River basin of Indus and the Punjab region was where the civilization flourished. It extended up to the Ghaggar–Hakra River Valley and the Ganges–Yamuna Doab. (Most of this part is now under Pakistan and western India, but there’s a small part that extends upto southeastern Afghanistan and the easternmost parts of Balochistan in Iran).

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Long-term controversy surrounds the Harappan language. Their writing is thought to have been either a pictographic or cursive script. It appears that the script had around 400 basic signs with many variations. The direction is generally written from left to right in scripts. Most of the writing was found on seals and sealings which were probably used in trade and official & administrative work.

Harappan people were able to measure length, mass, time using the measurement tools. They were the first to create a system for uniform weights and measurements.

P. N. Rao et.al. carried out a study. In a 2009 study, published in Science, computer scientists discovered that Indus script’s pattern was closer to spoken words. This supported the hypothesis that it codes a language yet undiscovered.

The Chinese Civilization lists paper as one of the most important technological offerings from China. It also includes early seismological detections, toilet paper matches, iron ploughs, multi-tube seed drilling, the suspension bridge and the wheelbarrow. They have made the first steps towards developing educational technology with the invention of paper.

Ancient Egyptian language was once one of the most enduring and widely used languages in the globe. Their script consisted of pictures of animals, birds, and other tools. These pictures are known as hieroglyphs. They had over 500 hieroglyphs, which is why they are called hieroglyphics. Evidence of the existence of many types of artistic hieroglyphics in Ancient Egypt can be found on the tombs and stone monuments that were discovered.

Medieval and modern periods in educational technology
The pulp papermaking process and paper were developed in China in the 2nd century. They were then carried to the Middle East by Muslim conquests. There are evidences that a paper mill was established in Sicily during the 12th century. The invention of the spinning wheel greatly increased the efficiency of threadmaking. Lynn White combined the spinning wheel with an increasing supply of rags to produce cheap paper. This was a key factor in the development and application of printing technology.

Johannes Gutenburg, a German inventor, invented the printing press in 1450 AD. In the history of education technology, the invention of the printing press was a key development factor. It allowed for the transmission of instruction according to the needs of a complex and technologically advanced society.

While industry was handwork at artisanal level, pre-industrial times saw the use of simple tools such as the slate, the hornbook, the blackboard and chalk to guide the instruction process. It consisted only of one text book with few illustrations. Educational technology was often equated with simple aids, such as charts or pictures.

The landmark year 1873 could be considered an important milestone in the history of audio-visual education technology or education technology. Vienna hosted an international exhibition that featured maps, charts, and other equipment.

Maria Montessori (1870-1952), an internationally-respected child educator and the original inventor of Montessori Method, made a major impact on educational technology by developing graded materials to ensure that each learner is able to follow the correct sequence of subject matter. Modern educational technology offers many opportunities to extend Montessori’s concept of a prepared child-centered environment.

Charles Babbage’s 1883 design for a general-purpose computing device was the basis of the modern computer. In 1943, International Business Machines Corporation of USA built the first computing machine according to hi design. O.K. developed the Computer Assisted instruction (CAI), in which the computer acts essentially as a tutor and the Talking Type writer. Moore in 1966. Computers have been used in education since 1974 in schools, colleges, and universities.

Education saw significant changes at the beginning of 19th century. British Broadcasting Corporation, (BBC), has maintained a rapid pace in contributing to formal education from the beginning of broadcasts for schools in 1920. By 1952, twenty states in the USA had provision for educational broadcasting. Parallel to this, approximately 98% schools in the United Kingdom were equipped by radios. Daily programmes were also available.

Sidney L. Pressey was a Ohio psychologist who developed a self-teaching device called ‘Drum Tutor’. It was created in 1920 by Dr. Pressey. Professor Skinner however, in his 1945 article “Science of Learning and art of Teaching”, pleaded for the application of knowledge from behavioral psychology to classroom procedures. He suggested that automated teaching devices be used.

The first broadcast of Regular television in Germany was in 1929. In 1936, the Olympic Games in Berlin was broadcasted by television stations in Berlin. Open circuit television started to be used in 1950 primarily for entertainment programming. Television has been used for educational purposes since 1960.

Brynmor (England) used education technological steps for the very first time in 1950. It should be noted that other countries began to make progress in the field of educational technology in 1960 due to the industrial revolution in America, Russia and elsewhere. It was in this manner that educational technology was born. It began in America and Russia in 1960. Today, it is available in England, Europe, India, and elsewhere.

In the 1950s, new technocracy was making education more attractive. There was a severe shortage of American teachers and so an urgent need for educational technology. Alvin C. Eurich and Dr. Alexander J. Stoddard, his associate introduced mass production technology to America.

American team teaching was established in the 1950’s. It was started at Harvard University in 1955 as part of the internship plan.

Benjamin Bloom, a US citizen, created the taxonomy of educational objects in 1956 with his publication, “The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives and The Classification of Educational Goals”, Handbook I: Cognitive Domain.

Dwight W. Allen (USA) and his colleagues first introduced Micro teaching technique to Stanford University in 1961.

Electronics was the most important technology to be developed at the start of the 21st century. Broadband internet access has become very popular. It is used in nearly all offices and educational institutions.

The classroom of today is likely to be a technology laboratory, where students use Wi-Fi enabled laptops and palmtops to communicate with each other. Technological advances in education have opened up new opportunities to teach and learn. Technological developments also motivated teachers to use the Internet to gain access to a wide range of information worldwide, both to enhance their lessons and to become competent professionals in their areas of interest. The Internet offers students the opportunity to access vast information to improve their learning experiences and adapt to the ever-changing society. Teachers and students are now attending conferences, workshops, seminars at national and international levels using multimedia techno-resources, such as PowerPoint. Students can also pursue important courses via online learning methods. The internet has provided endless opportunities for learners to improve their lives.

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