Filling and maintaining open positions in an organization’s structure is the managerial function of staffing. This involves identifying the work force requirements, informing, planning, compensating, training or reviewing candidates, as well as selecting, placing, motivating, promoting, informing, preparing, planning, and compensating. Staffing is closely tied to organizational, which is the creation of international positions and rules. Management theory has many writers who discuss staffing as an aspect of organizing.
First, staffing organizational roles requires knowledge and methods that are not often recognized by managers. They tend to think of organizing as merely setting up roles and pay little attention to the people who fill them. Making staffing an independent function allows for greater emphasis on human elements selection, appraisal, planning, and management development. The third is the accumulation of valuable knowledge and experience in the field of staffing. Fourth season of separating staffing: Managers often forget that staffing is their responsibility, not that of the personnel department. While this department is valuable, it is ultimately the responsibility of the manager to fill these positions and keep them filled by qualified staff.
Definition of the Managerial Position
It is not possible to agree on the exact job description of a manager. Actually, there are many perspectives on the nature of managerial tasks. The great man school is a group of writers that studied the managerial habits and behaviors of successful managers. The stories of these individuals are very interesting, but the authors don’t usually provide any explanation for their success. Others writers are primarily economists and focus on the entrepreneurial aspect of managing. They are concerned with profit maximizations and innovation as well as risk taking. Another group of writers focuses on decision making, particularly those that are difficult to program. A second view of the managerial job focuses on leadership. This is a focus on specific traits and managerial styles. This approach is closely related to the discussion on the power influence, which is the leader’s control over the environment and the subordinates. Others focus on the behavior and job description of leaders to help them understand their motivations. Henry Mintzberg’s preferred approach is to observe the activities of managers. Through observation of five executives, he found that their work was marked by shortening, variety, discontinuity, action orientation, and discontinuity. He observed that executives are more comfortable communicating verbally and that they engage in many activities that connect the enterprise to its environment.
Factors that Influence the Required Number of Managers
Not only does an organization have to be large, but so is its complexity, plans for expansion and turnover of management personnel. It is not a law that the ratio between the number and number of employees should be. It is possible to increase or contract the delegation authority and modify a structure in such a way that the number or decrease of managers within a given instance. This applies regardless of the size or complexity of the operation. It is important to determine the number of required managers. However, numbers are only a part of the overall picture. To ensure that the best-suited managers are chosen, it is essential to determine the qualifications of each individual position.
The Management Inventory
For any business, it is common to have a stock of raw materials and other goods in order to continue its operations. It is less common for enterprises to maintain an inventory of human resources, especially managers, even though this is vital for business success. An inventory is a simple way to keep track of the potential of managers within a company. It’s simply an organization chart for a unit that includes the managerial position and key information about the promotion ability of each incumbent.
The Manager Inventory Chart: Advantages and Limitations
- As you can see, the manager inventory chart has some general advantages.
- This chart provides an overview of the staffing situation in an organization.
- It is now easy to identify managers who are willing to be promoted. Managers may be less likely to look for employment outside of the company if they are given prompt action to find a position that is suitable.
- This chart shows the future internal supply for managers, indicating who is promoted in the next year.
- Managers that are not performing satisfactorily in their roles are identified and the need to train or replace them is noted.
- Training plans can be started immediately if the organization does not have the required “depth”. This will ensure that the future supply is available to managers.
- Managers nearing retirement can be identified and prepared for their replacement.
- This chart allows managers to transfer to other departments to improve their experience and strengthen their weak areas.
- It is possible to identify and prevent hoarding promotionable people by their immediate superiors. This practice is quite common in large companies. It is not a good idea for superiors to deny their subordinates the ability to transfer to other organizational units. However, the enterprise’s overall interests are more important than individual managers’ self-interest.
- Managers can offer guidance to subordinates regarding their career options and help them find employment opportunities within the company.
Despite all its advantages, the manager inventory charts has some limitations.
The chart does not indicate which manager positions may be promoted if an opening is created in another organization unit. This means that the promotionable person will not necessarily be able fill the position. Specialized skills or knowledge may be required. A promotionable manager in a production division cannot fill the position of vice president of Sales.
The chart does not give a complete picture of each person’s capabilities. It is necessary to keep records about each individual’s skills and performance.
While the chart can be used to counsel subordinates, it’s not always feasible to share this information with all employees. The chart may only be accessible to the top manager of a department or division.
Maintaining the chart current takes effort and time.
Some upper-level managers might be reluctant to share their charts with other managers, fearing they will lose subordinates in other units.
External factors include education, attitudes and norms in society, as well as laws and regulations that directly impact staffing and economic conditions. Many factors can affect staffing. These factors include organizational goals, tasks and technology. They also affect the type of employee, how many managers are available, their reward system and policies. Some organizations are more structured than others. Some positions, such as sales managers, require a high level of human relations skills. However, this skill might not be necessary for research scientists who work independently. Effective staffing requires that you recognize and take into consideration all external and internal factors. However, the emphasis here is on those which are relevant to staffing.
The External Environment
Staffing can be affected by external factors to varying degrees. These factors can be classified into sociocultural, legal-political and educational constraints. A lot of industries use high-tech technology, which requires intensive education. Managers in these industries also require extensive and intensive education. In the United States, managers aren’t able to accept orders blindly. They want active participation in the decision-making process. Managers will need to be more responsive to the public now and in future. They must also adhere to high ethical standards and respond to the legitimate needs of the public. The external supply and demand for managers is determined by the economic environment, including competitive conditions. Firms must comply with all laws and guidelines at different levels of government due to legal and political constraints.
Equal employment opportunities: There are several laws that guarantee equal employment opportunity (EEO). These laws prohibit discrimination on the basis or race, color, religions, national origin, sexual orientation, age, or other characteristics. EEO is based upon federal, state, or local laws. These laws have an impact on staffing. These laws must be followed when recruiting and selecting for promotions. Managers who make decisions in these areas need to be familiar with the laws and how they apply to their staffing functions.
Women in Management: Over the last ten years, women have made remarkable progress in obtaining management roles. This development can be attributed to laws that regulate fair employment practices, social attitudes towards women at work, and companies’ desire to project a positive image by hiring qualified women for managerial positions. There are more opportunities for women to hold managerial positions. However, career advancements can depend on the industry or company in which you work. Higher levels of management, such as in personnel or public relations, are more likely to have women. There are more advancement opportunities in certain industries than others. There are more women in managerial roles at financial services institutions like banks and relating businesses, which historically employed large amounts of women.
Evidence suggests that women also have difficulties reaching the top. One example is that no woman has been selected to be the chief executive officer of the Fortune Five Hundred corporations. Fortune reported that discrimination was one reason. Women are now more represented on board of directors. The number of women who serve on boards is however still very small.
International Environment: Staffing requires that one looks beyond the immediate environment to see the global changes being brought about by advanced communication technology as well as the existence of multinational corporations. Large international companies often have management teams that include managers from many nationalities. This geocentric approach allows the organization to be seen as a global entity that is involved in global decision-making, including staffing decisions. There are three options for companies to hire international staff: (1) they can source managers from their home country, (2) from their host country, or (3) from another country. Managers from the home country were often chosen in the beginning stages of developing an international business. The manager’s previous experience in the home office, their familiarity and understanding of products, personnel, enterprise goals, and policies are some reasons. This allows you to plan and also manage. However, it is possible that the national of the home country may not be familiar with the language and the culture in the foreign country. Additionally, sending managers and their families abroad is more expensive. It can be difficult for the family to adapt to the foreign environment. The host courtiers could pressure the parent firm into hiring managers from another country.
Managers who are nationals of the host country speak the language and understand the culture. It is usually less expensive to employ them, and they may not have to move their families. However, they may not have a good understanding of the company’s products and operations. Therefore, it may be harder to manage.
You can also employ nationals from third countries, who are often career managers in international settings. The host country might prefer to have its nationals in positions of power. Professor Arvin Phatak warned against choosing managers from countries that have been involved in past conflicts like India and Pakistan or Greece or Turkey. As you can see, there are many other factors to consider when operating overseas.